VOLUME 12, issue 3, 2021



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 12, issue 3, 2021, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Hydrogen-methanol blending as renewable energy and alternative fuel source for conventional spark-ignition engines - Performance study

Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi 1,2

1 Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39, Iraq.

Abstract: The energy crisis and pollution are vital issues today, which have led to researchers investigating non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable, and non-polluting fuels to reduce fuel consumption and reduce toxic compounds in combustion products. Hydrogen and methanol can be alternatives to conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil, and coal since they can be coupled with renewable and sustainable sources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the engine performance and pollutant emission of a spark ignition engine using hydrogen-methanol blended fuels with various blended rates for hydrogen (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% 12% by mass). The usage of hydrogen as supplementary fuel to the methanol-air mixture for spark ignition engine results in considerable improvement of the engine performance and in the reduction of the toxic components in the exhaust gases in comparison with the conventional spark ignition gasoline engine. The important improvement of hydrogen addition is to reduce the s.f.c and CO emission of methanol engines.  The Possibility of the engine power quality adjustment has also been studied.

Volume 12, issue 3, 2021, pp.129-138.

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2. An analysis of alternative refrigerants to optimise the Performance of a vapour compression refrigeration cycle

Amy Brown, Madeleine Combrinck, Jerry Edge

Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 8ST.

Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of alternative refrigerants with low Global Warming Potential and zero Ozone Depletion Potential.  The application here is the working fluid in vapour compression refrigeration cycles. A vapour compression refrigeration cycle model was developed in MATLAB and tested with refrigerants R1234ze(E), R134a, R32, R407C and ECP410a. The performance of each refrigerant was analysed against the baseline refrigerant R134a using cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, Carnot coefficient of performance and compressor power as the performance parameters. The results show that the cooling capacity of the vapour compression refrigeration cycle can be successfully optimized by 159.44% with ECP410a, 70.28% with R32 and 5.96% with R407C. The tests also demonstrated that an increase in coefficient of performance of 28.05% with ECP410a, 217.92% with R32 and 32.21% with R407C can be achieved. Whereas the results showed that the use of R1234ze(E) yielded a decrease in performance of -9.52% for cooling capacity and -16.10% for coefficient of performance.  It was also determined that the use of R32 could yield a decrease in compressor power by 46.50%.

Volume 12, issue 3, 2021, pp.139-148. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. Future role of domestic biomass and peat in national energy security

Laihanen Mika, Karhunen Antti, Ranta Tapio

LUT University, P.O. Box 20, 53851 Lappeenranta, Finland.

Abstract: The study evaluates the development of national supply security. The aim of the paper was to examine the supply security of solid domestic fuels for Finnish combined heat and power plants (CHP) in a domestic fuel disruption. The consumption of wood fuels has increased in recent decades and discussion of supply security has become important nationally. On the other hand, the consumption of peat and coal has been replaced by biomass, which has created questions over its sustainable availability regionally and nationally. The study utilised a questionnaire targeting major combined heat and power plants utilising domestic fuels located around Finland. The response rate of questionnaire was as high as 88%, which reflected the importance attached to the subject. The most significant concern was that economical operating conditions for peat should be ensured, or wood fuels will face difficulties in securing the energy supply by itself. However, the CHP plants were prepared to increase the use of wood fuels, for example by developing logistical systems, investing in fuel terminals and intensifying cooperation with fuel suppliers. Topic of the study is also important internationally.

Volume 12, issue 3, 2021, pp.149-158. Download Full Text Article (PDF)