VOLUME 10, ISSUE 1, 2019

 

Cover

Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)
     
     

1. Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology in engineering education

Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Official Journal of the International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39, Iraq.

EDITORIAL

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.1-14.

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2. 2D Visualization of flow phenomenon over individual inlet and outlet keys of piano key weir by CFD modeling

Mohammed Baqer N. Al-Baghdadi

Water Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O. Box 39, Iraq.

Abstract: Inlet and outlet keys are the main two components of piano key weir. Understanding the phenomena of flow over these two components is an important factor in the design of this structure. In this article, 2D investigation into the velocity and pressure distributions of the flow over individual inlet and outlet keys under different discharges has been performed using CFD technique. Analysis of the results provided information about the critical areas that should be taken into account when designing the PKW structure.

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.15-24. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

3. Experimental investigation into the effect of erosion and corrosion in pipes conveying fluid on its frequencies

Karrar Ibrahim Mohammed, Younus Mohammed Younus

Ministry of Oil, Middle Refineries Company, Najaf Refinery, Maintenance Section, Iraq.

Abstract: Pipes conveying fluid have many uses and the danger increases as the fluid is more likely to burn in the event of contact with the atmosphere, especially in oil installations. Many of the problems occurred due to the erosion and corrosion caused large explosions and many losses. For example, the fire and explosion in Chevron Richmond refinery in California. From this example and others, the idea of detecting erosion was introduced using vibration sensors. In this paper, proposed by the researchers an experimental method for detecting chemical corrosion and erosion caused by the flow of fluid inside the pipe in addition to the effect of external conditions in Al-Najaf Refinery. The examination was carried out by followed pipe (154.06mm) internal diameter, (168.28mm) external diameter and (7.11mm) thickness. The pipe specifications were ASTM\ASME A106 Grade B Sch40, 210Mpa modulus of elasticity and 7.85103Kg/m3 density. The pipe conveying RCR fluid and fixed with simply-supported ends. The focus was on a 10-meter pipe length. Also, the thickness of the pipe measured by Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge, and the frequency measured by Digital Vibration Meter, and the fluid velocity measured by Ultrasonic Flow-meter. The required values were examined every three months within five years in the same velocity and by keeping it within the limits of laminar flow. By followed up and studied the draw diagrams to find the search results, it has been shown that decreasing the thickness of the pipes over time due to erosion corrosion gives an increase in the frequency of the pipe transmitted fluid. This was evidence of the possibility of getting an indicator of erosion and corrosion through the pipes vibration. Where, the sensitivity of the frequency increase was indicated by the decrease in the thickness of the pipe due to the erosion and corrosion of the pipe wall. The percentage increase of frequency between the standard pipe without erosion and corrosion and the pipe after 5 years is 3.91%.

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.25-32. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

4. Analytical heat generation investigation for forced vibration beam with different crack characterizations influence

Diyaa H. J. Al-Zubaidi1, Muhannad Al-Waily2, Emad Q. Hussein1

1 University of Kerbala, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iraq.

2 University of Kufa, Faculty of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Department, Iraq.

Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of the depth and location of the crack on the heat generated in the beam, due to different variable load time with frequency values, in case of periodic load. The beam used made of carbon steel (1.5% C) which has main specifications of density (7750 kg/m3) and modulus of elasticity 200 Gpa. Two techniques are used, first, Theoretical technique is used in both analytical and numerical analysis. The analytical technique using the derived equation of motion for the beam and the crack model is included. Matlab (R 2017), computer program has been used to solve the derived equations to predict the amount of heat generated, and second, the numerical technique is employed using the finite element method adopting COMSOL program to verify the analytical results, it also gives a perception of the difference in temperature due to heat generated. In the first time, the heat generated was calculated as a result of force vibration at different locations and boundary conditions of the beam. It was observed that the heat generated as the frequency supplied is approaching to the natural frequency, and the generated heat is reduced as the frequency supplied goes away the natural frequency significantly. It has been observed that the effect of the crack for different types of supported beams affects the heat generation where the greater depth of the crack has increased the heat generation of the beam is increasing, as well as, the approaching the position of the crack than the moment higher of the beam, the heat generation of the beam is increased. In addition, analytical the results evaluated were comparison by numerical results evaluated by using COMSOL program, and found that the maximum percentage error is about (6.2%).

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.33-48. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

5. Study the heat treatment effect on the TiO2 nano-particles prepared by sol-gel process

Dina Y. Mahdi1, Ali A. Abdulhadi1, Ali H. Ataiwi2

1 Materials Engineering Department, University of kufa, Najaf-Iraq.

2 Materials Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad-Iraq.

Abstract: In this paper, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-particles were synthesized by the sol-gel method by using Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) solution as precursor. The effects of calcination temperature were determined. The samples were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that TiO2 nano-particles were polycrystalline with rutiles and anatase phases. The Surface morphological studies obtained from SEM micrographs. Particle size increased from 43 to 500 nm when calcination temperature was 500 oC. In the FT-IR spectra, the peaks observed below 700 cm−1 due to stretching and bending vibrations of TiOTi bond.

Volume 10, issue 1, 2019, pp.49-54. Download Full Text Article (PDF)