VOLUME 8, ISSUE 1, 2017



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling: A review of the last ten years results of the Fuel Cell Research Center-IEEF

Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF), Najaf, P.O.Box 39, Iraq.

Abstract: Fuel cell technology is expected to play an important role in meeting the growing demand for distributed power generation. In an ongoing effort to meet increasing energy demand and to preserve the global environment, the development of energy systems with readily available fuels, high efficiency and minimal environmental impact is urgently required. A fuel cell system is expected to meet such demands because it is a chemical power generation device, which converts the chemical energy of a renewable clean fuel (e.g. Hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. Still a maturing technology, fuel cell technology has already indicated its advantages, such as its high-energy conversion efficiency, modular design and very low environmental intrusion, over conventional power generation equipment. Among all kinds of fuel cells, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells have many superior advantages. These advantages have sparked development efforts in various quarters of industry to open up new field of applications for PEM fuel cells. Three key issues limiting the widespread commercialization of the PEM fuel cells technology which are better performance, lower cost, and long cell life. The strategy of the Fuel Cell Research Center at the International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF) is to develop the PEM fuel cells to improve their lifetime with a much higher power density and lower cost. An overview of innovations in this field is presented using the published results of the center over the last decade. These innovative improvements will show a new scenario for the future fuel cell market of the next years.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.1-28.

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2. Comparison of energy penalty in post-combustion and pre-combustion calcium looping systems using aspen plus

Wei Dai, Subhodeep Banerjee, Ramesh K. Agarwal

Washington University in St. Louis, 1 Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Abstract: Calcium looping (CaL) is a recent technology that utilizes calcium oxide (CaO) and the carbonation-calcination equilibrium reactions to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue stream of fossil fueled power plants. In this paper, system level simulations are developed in Aspen Plus to calculate the energy penalty of introducing calcium looping in a coal fired power plant. Both post-combustion and pre-combustion capture scenarios are investigated. The relationship between various flow ratios, the conversion rate of CaO, and the carbon capture efficiency is used to validate the Aspen Plus model for the calcium looping process; it agrees well with the experimental data and simulation results available in the literature. The simulation shows an increasing marginal energy penalty associated with an increase in the carbon capture efficiency, which limits the maximum carbon capture efficiency in real-world applications of calcium looping to between 95% and 98% before the energy penalty becomes too large.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.29-42. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. Numerical simulations and analyses on thermal characteristics of 18650 lithium-ion batteries with natural cooling conditions

Fankai Meng1,2,3, Lingen Chen1,2,3, Zhihui Xie1,2,3

1 Institute of Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, P. R. China.

2 Military Key Laboratory for Naval Ship Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, P. R. China.

3 College of Power Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, P. R. China.

Abstract: As the main power source of electric vehicles and electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries have large capacity and high power density. However, the excessive heat generation often leads to high temperature of the battery, which challenges the safety of the battery. The heat generation and heat dissipation characteristics of an 18650 type lithium-ion batteries in charging process with natural cooling conditions are simulated by using finite element analysis software in this paper. The effects of charging rate and placement direction are analyzed. The results show that the maximum temperatures are 42.33 ºC, 58.84 ºC and 35.62 ºC, i.e. increased by 7.33 ºC, 23.84 ºC and 1.62 ºC after 1C-rate, 2C-rate and 0.5C-rate chargings, respectively. It is unable to cool the battery by natural convection cooling in 2C-rate charging. Forced cooling should be used to ensure the safety of the battery.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.43-50. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

4. Environmental and energy problematic in the mediterranean irrigation regions framework

Laura Romero Marrero, Modesto Pérez-Sánchez, P. Amparo López-Jiménez

Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department. Universitat Politécnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera s.n. 46022. Valencia, Spain.

Abstract: Agriculture is a significant user of water and energy in Mediterranean coasts of Europe, such as Spanish Mediterranean regions. Water implications of such irrigations are well known, but also energy must be considered when environmental implications are analyzed. Apart from this, Mediterranean region has its particular problematic framework related to irrigation issues. Often, the availability of irrigation is determinant to the viability of farmers, and the energy implications must be considered when determining the feasibility of small and big farms, particularly in the Mediterranean regions, where the wide variety of customs in each group of irrigators and definitely, its specific weather conditions, typical of a semi-arid zone. All these aspects are analyzed in this paper, as a state of the art determination of problems and possible solutions in a regional scale. Some solutions presented in this paper can contribute with theoretical reductions of emission of greenhouse gasses until 174.10 tCO2/year in pumped systems and 58.49 tCO2/year in multipurpose systems.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.51-62. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

5. Management of electricity peak load for residential sector in Baghdad city by using solar generation

Afaneen A. Abbood1, Mohammed A. Salih2, Hasan N. Muslim1

1 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq.

2 Planning and Studies Department, Ministry of Electricity, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Load management strategies such as peak reduction, load shifting and energy conservation are effective solution to save and optimally usage of electricity. Solar cells - photovoltaic systems (solar PV) are one of the modern methods used in the management of peak loads in the electric power system because PV generation coincides with peak load hours in the day. The aim of this work is implementation of management techniques using solar cells for residential sector in Baghdad city. The estimation of solar radiation data and PV system design has been simulated based on MATLAB software. In this study, a 20% efficiency monocrystalline silicon rooftop PV generator of 2kWp with six panels and overall area 10m² has been proposed for each customer in the residential sector of Baghdad. The panels are orientated towards south (azimuth angle equals zero) with a tilt angle equals 18° for summery months and 48° for wintery months. The obtained results of demand saving range between 17% for January and 27% for April while 20% for June. The annually demand saving for each consumer is 20%. As well as to the demand saving, this study presents the capability of application the load-shifting technique from high load periods to low load periods, and ability to store the surplus energy produced from PV generator in batteries for usage this energy at a later time.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.63-72. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

6. Recovery of sulfur dioxide from gas mixture in packed bed column

Jafar Ghani Majeed

Department of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Mustansiryia University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Recovery of SO2 from SO2/Air mixture into aqueous sodium carbonate solution was performed using packed bed column in pilot scale. The aim of the study was to improve the recovery efficiency of this process, to find the proper operation conditions in the packed bed column, and to contribute to the application of this process in the industry. The SO2-recovery efficiency was measured while the gas mixture rate, the inlet SO2 concentration, sodium carbonate solution concentration, liquid temperature, and the liquid hold-up were changed according to experimental design. Computer program (Statgraphics/Experimental Design) was used to estimate the fitted linear model of SO2-recovery efficiency (η) in terms of (G, CSO2, CNa2CO3, T, and VL), and the economic aspects of the process. The accuracy of η model is ± 2.38 %. The linear model of η was adequate, and the operating parameters were significant, while the interactions were negligible.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.73-82. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

7. Water implications in Mediterranean irrigation networks: Problems and solutions

Laura Romero Marrero, Modesto Pérez-Sánchez, P. Amparo López-Jiménez

Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department. Universitat Politécnica de Valencia. Camino de Vera s.n. 46022. Valencia, Spain.

Abstract: Agriculture is a significant user of water and energy in Mediterranean coasts of Europe, such as Spanish Mediterranean regions. Water implications of such irrigations are well known but there are many problems that must be taken into account when designing each phase of the irrigation system, not only in the construction phase but in the exploitation, control and maintenance of all the elements in the network. All the possible problems in each part of the irrigation system will be analyzed in the following paper, proposing several solutions to avoid these problems or mitigate its consequences. These solutions go from the simple maintenance of pipes and vales to the implementation of more sophisticated systems, such as SCADA, or management strategies, such as benchmarking.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.83-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

8. Remove of lead from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique (Eclipta Alba plant)

Mohamad J. Noufal1, Zena A. Maalla1, Dareen J. Noufal 2, Ali A. Hossean3

1Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, 174 Shazhengjie, Shapingba District, 400045, Chongqing City, China.

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Al-Baath University, Homs City, Syrian Arab Republic.

3 Higher Institute for Environmental Research, Tishreen University, Latakia City, Syrian Arab Republic.

Abstract: One of the major environmental problems is the pollution of water and soils by toxic heavy metals. The aim of current study was estimation the ability of Eclipta alba plant for the removal of (Pb) from the polluted water by phytoremediation technique and study the effect of a number of parameters(Pb concentration, contact time and pH values). The plant showed higher removal efficiency (99.2%) after 7 days of treatment at 50 ppm. The best removal efficiency of Pb 98.95% at 100 ppm was occurred at pH7. The root ability to accumulate Pb was more than the shoot ability, after 7 days treatment of water and pH=7, they were 2852.5 mg/kg, 2497.5 mg/kg and 502.5 mg/kg in roots, stems and leaves respectively. These results showed that Eclipta Alba can be used in biological treatment of polluted water.

Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017, pp.97-104. Download Full Text Article (PDF)