VOLUME 10, ISSUE 3, 2019

 

The 1st Conference on Applications of Engineering Techniques in Renewable Energy and Environment (AETREE), 5 May 2019, Imam Al-Kadhum College (IKC), Najaf, Iraq.

 

Cover

Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)
     
     

1. Challenges and barriers in Iraq for solar PV generation: a review

Hasan N. Muslim

Department of Computer Techniques Engineering, Imam Al-Kadhum College (IKC), Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: This study presents a review in the challenges and obstacles for implementation of solar photovoltaic power generation in Iraq. These problems that confront Iraq are represented by a technical, financial, political barriers and other. Based on solar GIS map for Iraq, the average daily solar radiation is about (5-5.5) kW/m/day, and this received, considerable amount of energy should properly and technically be utilized. Not only, The Iraqi government must take serious steps, plans and policies to overcome these challenges, but also, put developed strategies, make scenarios with programs from specialized and expert persons.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.55-64. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

2. A cost-effective IoT-based control system for smart greenhouses powered by solar energy

Athraa Talib Abd Zeed, Ali H. Ali, Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Iraq.

Abstract: A smart Greenhouse is a self-regulated, climate-controlled environment for optimal growth of plants. Climatic conditions inside a greenhouse, like, temperature, humidity, lighting intensity, soil moisture are continuously monitored so as to reduce water consumption, increase efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts on yields. Precision agriculture combines the use of information and technology to ensure the best agricultural practices. Obtaining real-time non-invasive information to monitor crops or make yield predictions is a challenge. This work proposes an intelligent controlling system for greenhouses based on the architecture of the Internet of Things (IoT) powered by solar energy. With an online monitoring, users can completely control the systems, treat and analyze data via browsers in any place and at any time without any need for installing special device or software. It was demonstrated that it is possible to design an accurate system using open source hardware and open systems to record the input for these models and monitor crops. Moreover, this open source hardware can be used by a broad variety of users and is an alternative in poor rural areas Because of lower cost, less human effort, easy installation (does not require infrastructure), and lower energy consumption than other solutions.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.65-76. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

3. Investigation study of a large- scale solar energy powered groundwater pumping system for irrigation in Najaf city- Iraq

Eman Abd Al-Latif, Mariam Ahmed, Amel Ahmed Ridha, Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: This work presents a study and design of a large-scale solar energy powered groundwater pumping system for irrigation in Najaf city - Iraq. The system is expected to produce sufficient water pumping to cover the specified area. We built two system depended on daily water use for wheat to calculate number of pumps, panels and the power of each panel, the first case study for 28 m ground water depth which needs 16 pumps and each pump need 80W,10 panels and 300 w power for each panel. The other case study for 100 m ground water depth which needs 5 pumps and each pump need 500W, 20 panels and 250w power for each panel. The System is done by using Matlab/Simulink which contains solar arrays; stages DC-DC boost converter, DC shunt motor, and centrifugal pump. In addition, perturbation and observation (P&O) algorithm based maximum power point tracker (MPPT) was used to improve the system efficiency. The results show that the system able to coverage the specified area with sufficient water to irrigate the crops required. And in RETSCREEN after determined our location calculated the Daily water use per unit, Water use reduction, Electricity- daily, Electricity-annual and reduction and the emission of 5.9 tco2 that is equivalent to 13.8 Barrels of crude oil not consumed. The result show that the system able to coverage specific area with sufficient water to irrigate the crop required.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.77-86. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

4. Study the effect of dust on performance of PV panel and design cleaning system

H. Gh. Hameed, D. M. Hachim, AbdulRasool S. Al-Hilo, Ameer Mazen, Labran Ali, Narjes Maqdad, Zahraa Farhan

Power Mechanical Department, Engineering Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: The abundant availability of solar energy in the nature is due to emitted energy by the sun at an extremely large rate. When all solar energy can be converted into usable forms, it become enough to supply the worlds energy demand. However, this is not possible because of the environmental conditions such as effect of temperature, clouds and dust. Thus that through solar panel, solar energy can be converted to more usable energy forms. In a country like Iraq, efficiency of the solar panel is affected by accumulation of dust, where the permeability of its surface is reduced, which impedes the absorption of falling photons and thus reduces its ability to generate electricity. In the present study, a pre-programmed moveable cleaning system is used and the results showed that the output power of solar panel with cleaning increased by 45% as compared with that one without cleaning.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

5. Design and construction of smart IoT-based aquaponics powered by PV cells

Baraa Abd Al-Zahraa Naser, Aajam Laith Saleem, Ali Hilal Ali, Salam Alabassi, Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, Iraq.

Abstract: An aquaponic is a system that combines aquaculture with hydroponic to form a bio-integrated structure that aims at achieving a symbiotic environment for both aqualife and crops growth. Fish excretions in fish tanks contains ammonia which is poisonous and is considered very dangerous on fish survival. However, ammonia can be converted by the action of the nitrifying bacteria into Nitrites and then to Nitrates which can be used as nutrients for the plants, hence the symbiotic relationship between the two. The aim of this project is to monitor and control aquaponics by using Internet of Things (IoT) technology by recording various parameters in real time settings. Our proposed system consists of sensors that measure pH, temperature, Oxygen and ammonia levels. In turn, these sensors are connected to a remote database over the internet to enable users to get the values of these sensors. We used NodeMcu to acquire sensors data and deliver them to a web server. The low power consumption of the system has resulted in the possibility of powering it by solar power. We have registered levels of ammonia without the action of aquaculture part between 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L over a period of one week. These values have since risen to a dangerous level of 0.5mg/L leading fish deaths. However, a stable range of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L were registered with the integration of the aquaculture part. In addition, a normal pH level of 6.5 to 8 were recorded and the temperature was between (23-25.57) C. these results are considered acceptable for a healthy growth of both aqualife and hydroplants.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

6. Measurement of natural radioactivity in bread product samples available in Iraqi markets

Ali Abid Abojassim, Dhahir Mohammed Dhahir, Hawraa Akram Idris, Ayah Akram Jawad

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: Bread product is one of the main meals used by man for all age categories characterized as a cheap, quick, and therefore it must study the brad product in all scientific research, such as natural radioactivity. In this research, it is measured the natural radioactivity (40k, 238U, 232Th) for ten samples of bread product that available in the Iraqi market, using gamma ray spectrometer NaI(Tl). Also, it was calculated the radium equivalent activity and internal hazard index. The results found that, the specific activity for potassium-40 were ranged from (14.910.89) Bq/kg to (112.452.99) Bq/kg with an average (50.64) Bq/kg, while the specific activity for uranium-238 ranged between (3.490.42) Bq/kg to (15.331.04) Bq/kg with an average (6.44) Bq/kg, but for thorium-232 were ranged from (0.640.11) Bq/kg to (5.440.31) Bq/kg with an average (2.29) Bq/kg. It also found that total average radium equivalent activity and internal hazard index were (13.61) Bq/kg and (0.054) respectively. The study has shown that the levels of radioactivity and radiological hazard index (radium equivalent activity and internal hazard index) in samples of bread product were less than the limit value of organization UNSCEAR and OECD. Finally, can be seed all samples under study are found to be safe.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

7. NORM in soil of some locations in Baghdad governorate, Iraq

Ali Abid Abojassim and Leith Hani Rasheed

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: In this study, 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured in the soil samples for some locations in the Rasafa Side of Baghdad Governorate. The study was carried out using gamma ray spectroscopy NaI(Tl) with "3x3" crystal. Thirty eight regain were selected randomly from study area, from 1/11/2018 to 1/1/2019. The results showed that, the specific activity of 235U, 238U, 232Th and 40K were ranged from (0.456 to 1.510) Bq/kg, (9.89 QUOTE  0.61 to 32.77 QUOTE  0.39) Bq/kg, (5.790.23 to 14.460.37) Bq/kg, (204.162.38) QUOTE   to (529.483.83)  QUOTE  Bq/kg respectively. After measured the specific activity, we found radiological hazard index the mean radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), representative level index (Iγr), alpha index (Iα) were (25.64 to 77.11) Bq/kg, (0.069 to 0.208), (0.111 to 0.232), (0.175 to 0.592), (0.049 to 0.164) respectively. In addition, the mean Exposure rate ( QUOTE  ), absorbed dose rate in air (Dr,), annual gonadal equivalent dose (AGED), annual effective dose equivalent indoor, outdoor and total(AEDEindoor, AEDEoutdoor, AEDEtotal) and excess lifetime cancer risk ( ELCR)) were )2.35 to 4.94)μR/h , (0.284 to 38.06)nGy/h , (143.10 to 301.52)mSv/y , (0.056 to 0.187) mSv/y, (0.014 to 0.047)mSv/y , (0.070 to 0.234)mSv/y , (0.246 to 0.817) respectively. The results indicate that across the area the effective dose from terrestrial gamma radiation is everywhere within the acceptable level according to UNSCEAR, OCDE and ICRP, so there is no risk of propels that life in area under study.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

8. Study of gas sensor based on TiO2 nanostructures for the detection of NO2 gas in air

Radhiyah Mahdi Shaker Jarrah

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: In this work gas sensor based on a TiO2 nanostructure has been investigated to employ it to detect and measurement percentage of presence of nitrogen dioxide in the air specimen. TiO2 was fabricated using dc magnetron sputtering method, pure Ti (99.99%) used as sputtering target, the oxygen/argon rate flow rate was settled at (50:50 sccm), the chamber presser was controlled to remain it at (0.2 Pa) during the deposition process and direct voltage for the sputtering operation was 1000 V with 100W power. X-ray diffraction pattern show that the structure of all TiO2 films is polycrystalline with three phases Anatase, Brookite and Rutile with preferential orientation in the (112) direction. For TiO2 metal oxides, the annealed sensor exhibit variation of the conductance upon exposure to NO2 gas and showing excellent sensitivity. The high sensitivity for NO2 gas can be achieved with annealing the film and the sensitivity of the TiO2 thin films changes linearly with the increase of the gas concentration. The response recovery time of TiO2 materials to NO2 gas is characterized to be relatively exceedingly short. TiO2 thin films have the highest sensitivity of 95% and exceedingly short response time of 2 s.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)
     
     

9. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of nanostructure ZnO

Radhiyah M. S.al jarrah, Iman Muslim Alessa

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.

Abstract: In this research, the effect of annealing temperature Ta on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructure which was prepared by spray pyrolysis method, was investigated. ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique on glass substrate with thickness 300 nm using: Zinc acetate Zn (CH3COO)22H2O, with purity of 99.6% and distilled water. After that the films were annealed at various temperatures (673, 7 773 and 873 K). X-ray diffraction studies show that the structure of all ZnO films is polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtizte structure with preferential orientation in the (002) direction. The post-deposition annealing of the film from (R.T to 873) K increases the intensity of (002) peak corresponding to c-axis orientation in addition with the decrease in full width at half maxima (FWHM). The optical measurement showed that the nature of the optical transition has been direct allowed with average band gap energies have tendency to decreases from (3.28 -2.93) eV with increasing of Ta excepted it was increased to 3.21 eV at 773 K. The extent and nature of transmittance and optimized band gap of the material assure to utilize it for photovoltaic applications.

Volume 10, issue 3, 2019, pp.87-96. Download Full Text Article (PDF)