VOLUME 4, ISSUE 5, 2013



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Prediction and optimization of fuel cell performance using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

Gustavo Marques Hobold1, Ramesh K. Agarwal2

1 Laboratory of Energy Conversion Engineering & Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil & Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, MO 63130, USA.

Abstract: The attention that is currently being given to the emission of pollutant gases in the atmosphere has made the fuel cell (FC), an energy conversion device that cleanly converts chemical energy into electrical energy, a good alternative to other technologies that still use carbon-based fuels. The temperature plays an important role on the efficiency of an FC as it influences directly the humidity of the membrane, the reversible thermodynamic potential and the partial pressure of water; therefore the thermal control of the fuel cell is the focus of this paper. We present models for both high and low temperature fuel cells based on the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A thermodynamic analysis is performed on the cells and the methods of controlling their temperature are discussed. The cell parameters are optimized for both high and low temperatures using a Java-based multi-objective genetic algorithm, which makes use of the logic of the biological theory of evolution to classify individual parameters based on a fitness function in order to maximize the power of the fuel cell. Applications to high and low temperature fuel cells are discussed.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.721-742.

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2. An overview of future sustainable nuclear power reactors

Andreas Poullikkas

Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia, Cyprus.

Abstract: In this paper an overview of the current and future nuclear power reactor technologies is carried out. In particular, the nuclear technology is described and the classification of the current and future nuclear reactors according to their generation is provided. The analysis has shown that generation II reactors currently in operation all around the world lack significantly in safety precautions and are prone to loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In contrast, generation III reactors, which are an evolution of generation II reactors, incorporate passive or inherent safety features that require no active controls or operational intervention to avoid accidents in the event of malfunction, and may rely on gravity, natural convection or resistance to high temperatures. Today, partly due to the high capital cost of large power reactors generating electricity and partly due to the consideration of public perception, there is a shift towards the development of smaller units. These may be built independently or as modules in a larger complex, with capacity added incrementally as required. Small reactors most importantly benefit from reduced capital costs, simpler units and the ability to produce power away from main grid systems. These factors combined with the ability of a nuclear power plant to use process heat for co-generation, make the small reactors an attractive option. Generally, modern small reactors for power generation are expected to have greater simplicity of design, economy of mass production and reduced installation costs. Many are also designed for a high level of passive or inherent safety in the event of malfunction. Generation III+ designs are generally extensions of the generation III concept, which include advanced passive safety features. These designs can maintain the safe state without the use of any active control components. Generation IV reactors, which are future designs that are currently under research and development, will tend to have closed fuel cycles and burn the long-lived actinides now forming part of spent fuel, so that fission products are the only high-level waste. Relative to current nuclear power plant technology, the claimed benefits for generation IV reactors include nuclear waste that lasts a few centuries instead of millennia, 100-300 times more energy yield from the same amount of nuclear fuel, the ability to consume existing nuclear waste in the production of electricity and improved operating safety. Generation V+ reactors are designs which are theoretically possible, but which are not being actively considered or researched at present. Though such reactors could be built with current or near term technology, they trigger little interest for reasons of economics, practicality or safety.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.743-776. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. Optimum feeding rate of solid hazardous waste in a cement kiln burner

W.K. Hiromi Ariyaratne, Morten C. Melaaen, Lars-André Tokheim

Telemark University College, Faculty of Technology, Kjølnes Ring 56, P.O. Box 203, N-3901, Porsgrunn, Norway.

Abstract: Solid hazardous waste mixed with wood chips (SHW) is a partly CO2 neutral fuel, and hence is a good candidate for substituting fossil fuels like pulverized coal in rotary kiln burners used in cement kiln systems. SHW is used in several cement plants, but the optimum substitution rate has apparently not yet been fully investigated. The present study aims to find the maximum possible replacement of coal by SHW, without negatively affecting the product quality, emissions and overall operation of the process. A full-scale experiment was carried out in the rotary kiln burner of a cement plant by varying the SHW substitution rate from 0 to 3 t/hr. Clinker quality, emissions and other relevant operational data from the experiment were analysed using fuel characteristics of coal and SHW. The results revealed that SHW could safely replace around 20% of the primary coal energy without giving negative effects. The limiting factor is the free lime content of the clinker. Results from the present study were also compared with results from a previous test using meat and bone meal.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.777-786. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

4. The geological controls of geothermal groundwater sources in Lebanon

Amin Shaban1, Layla Khalaf-Keyrouz2

1 National Council for Scientific Research, Remote Sensing Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

2 Notre Dame University-Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon.

Abstract: Lebanon is a country that is relatively rich in water resources, as compared to its neighboring states in the Middle East. Several water sources are issuing on the surface or subsurface, including nonconventional water sources as the geothermal groundwater. This aspect of water sources exists in Lebanon in several localities, as springs or in deep boreholes. To the present little attention has been given to these resources and their geological setting is still unidentified. The preliminary geological field surveys revealed that they mainly occur in the vicinity of the basalt outcrops. Therefore, understanding their geological controls will help in exploring their origin, and thus giving insights into their economical exploitation. This can be investigated by applying advanced detection techniques, field surveys along with detailed geochemical analysis. This study aims at assessing the geographic distribution of the geothermal water in Lebanon with respect to the different geological settings and controls that govern their hydrogeologic regimes. It will introduce an approach for an integrated water resources management which became of utmost significance for the country.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.787-796. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

5. Effects of time of heatsetting on the tensile properties of ingeo™ poly (lactic acid) (PLA) fabric

Idumah C. I1, Nwachukwu A. N2

1 School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

2 Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Abstract: Poly (lactic acid) is biodegradable and environmentally benign aliphatic polyester produced from the fermentation of naturally occurring and renewable resources like corn, sugar and vegetables and subsequently converted to a textile fiber through melt spinning and spun bonding. A study of the effect of time of heatsetting on tensile properties of knitted Ingeo™ Poly (lactic acid) fabric was investigated and reported in this paper. PLA samples were subjected to increasing heatsetting times of 15s, 30s, 40s, 60s, 90s and 240s at 1300 C using the Werner Mathis Infra red heatsetting equipment. Tensile properties were evaluated using the KES-FB (KAWABATA) fabric evaluation system. The tensile properties determined in weft and warp directions included fabric extension [%], linearity of load extension [-], tensile energy [WT] g.cm/cm2 and tensile resilience [%]. Results revealed the optimum time of heatsetting PLA yarns to attain dimensional stability was within the time range of 30-45s at heatsetting temperature of 130 0C.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.797-806. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

6. Assessment potential wind energy in the north area of Iraq

Ahmed F. Hassoon

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Wind energy is renewable and environment friendly, which can be connected for various end-uses. A precise knowledge of wind energy regime is a pre-requisite for the efficient planning and implementation of any wind energy project. However, due to the absence of a reliable and accurate Iraq Wind Atlas, further studies on the assessment of wind energy are necessary. The main purpose of this paper is present and perform an investigation on the wind energy potential in the northern area of Iraq. Therefore, in this study, wind data collected over a period of nearly three decades at five different locations in order to figure out the wind energy potential in this region. The data from selected stations were analyzed using the two-parameter Weibull probability distribution function. The higher probability frequency wind speed at windy month (July) is found in Tuz and Tikrit stations. In Tuz the range (2.5-3.0 m/s) taken about 45% from the domain wind, In Tikrit the high ranges of wind (3.5-4.0 m/s) and (4.0-4.5m/s) form 40.9% and 36.4% of wind speed frequency, but high frequency of low wind speed is concentrated at Biji, Kirkuk and Mosul. This is reflected on The maximum expected energy output (13.5kw/h) occupied at Tikrit station. Overall The study presented here is an attempt to promote wind energy in north Iraq and to bridge the gap in order to create prospective Wind Atlas of Iraq.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.807-814. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

7. Utilization of activated carbon for the removal of basic dyes in fixed-bed microcolumn

Emad N. El Qada1, Emad A. Abdelghany2, Yehia H. Magdy2

1 Department of Chemical Engineering Technology, Yanbu Industrial College, Yanbu, P.O. Box 30346, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

2 Chemical Eng. Dept., Faculty of Eng., Minia University, Minia, P.O. Box 61519, Egypt.

Abstract: Liquid-phase adsorption processes were performed using basic dyes (methylene blue (MB), basic red (BR) and basic yellow (BY)) in an activated carbon microcolumn. The effects of initial dye concentration, column diameter and particle size were investigated. The performance of the fixed-bed adsorber was evaluated through the concept of breakthrough curves. The Thomas model was employed to predict the breakthrough curves and compared with the experimental breakthrough curves Furthermore, the Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) has been applied to the data to determine the minimum residence time and the minimum adsorbent exhaustion rate. Column studies showed effective use of adsorbents. The results reflected the significance of the experimental parameters on the efficient removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution. The Thomas model predicts the experimental data well.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.815-824. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

8. CFD analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade for optimum value of power

Monir Chandrala, Abhishek Choubey, Bharat Gupta

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oriental Institute of Science & Technology, Bhopal (MP), India.

Abstract: With the shortage of fossil fuels, alternative energy has been thrust into the national spotlight as a major necessity in order to keep up with the increasing energy demands of the world. Wind energy has been proven one of the most viable sources of renewable energy. A wind turbine is a rotary device that extracts energy from the wind. Rotor blade is a key element in a wind turbine generator system to convert wind energy into mechanical energy. In this paper rotor blade is made up of single airfoil NACA 0018. The CFD analysis of NACA 0018 airfoil is carried out at various blade angles at 32 m/s wind speed. The analysis showed that blade angle 10º gives optimum power. The pressure and velocity distributions are plotted. These results are compared with wind tunnel experiment values.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.825-834. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

9. Assessment of the performance of various airfoil sections on power generation from a wind turbine using the blade element momentum theory

Xiaomin Chen, Ramesh Agarwal

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130, USA.

Abstract: It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is a function of the number of blades B, the tip speed ratio λ (blade tip speed/wind free stream velocity) and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD) of the airfoil sections of the blade. The airfoil sections used in HAWT are generally thick airfoils such as the S, DU, FX, Flat-back and NACA 6-series of airfoils. These airfoils vary in (CL /CD) for a given B and λ, and therefore the power generated by HAWT for different blade airfoil sections will vary. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different airfoil sections on HAWT performance using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. In this study, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given B and λ and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.835-850. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

10. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

Kais J. Al-Jumaily, Morwa K. Ibrahim

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.851-858. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

11. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

D. Subramaniam1, A. Murugesan2, A. Avinash1

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu, India.

2 Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract: Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the decisive factors affecting pollutants mobility in soils receiving waste amendments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DOM1 derived from agricultural solid waste (ASW) and DOM2 derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) on the mobility of inorganic arsenic (As) in two alluvial soils from the Nile River Delta. In column experiments, addition of DOM solutions significantly increased As concentration in the effluents. There was no significant difference between the two soils, the obtained results from soil2 columns revealed that DOM2 has stronger capability than DOM1 to facilitate As mobility. The pH of the studied soils is alkaline (8.1) which promoted the dissociation as well as deprotonation of DOM and as a consequence, humic substances in DOM become negatively charged organic anions, leading to their substantial competition with As for the adsorption sites on both soil surfaces. The results emphasized that in alkaline soils there is a risk of groundwater pollution in the long run by arsenic either naturally found in soil or originated at high soil pH when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from various organic amendments ASW and/or MSW and leached through soil profile.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.859-870. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

12. Iranian traditional architecture and energy saving (case study: Shiraz Ghajar houses)

Najmeh Najafi

Master of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Beyza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Beyza, Iran.

Abstract: Climate is an important factor in logical formation of urban structures and their type of architecture. The present study looks at the relationship between the traditional buildings and sustainable development as well as the climatic conditions and construction patterns in Shiraz, Iran. The purpose of this research is to help promote energy efficient architectural design in Semi hot-arid climates by introducing the technics that the traditional architects used to design buildings in Shiraz. The climatic design solutions studied in a number of traditional buildings Belong to Qajar era in Shiraz. Result of this paper; show that considering the experience in traditional architecture of Shiraz, it is possible to create an environmental and sustainable architecture.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.871-878. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

13. Preliminary determination of the energy potential ofocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

Andrea Fischer, Alexandre Beluco, Luiz Emílio B. de Almeida

Inst Pesquisas Hidráulicas, Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Abstract: The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandaí, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.879-894. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

14. Atmospheric ice monitoring system operation at remote locations in cold region

Muhammad S. Virk, Taimur Rashid, Mohamed Y. Mustafa

Department of Technology, Narvik University College, Norway.

Abstract: The problems encountered in installation, maintenance and operations of equipment in the cold climate regions are far more complicated than others. The contributing factors and problems that can affect the system operation and performance should be identified, assessed and focused within well-defined parameters before its installation in cold climate regions. The harsh cold environment, could not only directly impact the system performance, but can also indirectly contributes to the associated factors, which could result in the delayed maintenance and system monitoring activities. This paper describes the issues related to meteorological ice monitoring system’s operation in cold environment and also practical problems are identified and assessed, based on their impact on the overall system performance. The attributing factors causing such problems are overviewed and relationship between key parameters and system performance is discussed.

Volume 4, Issue 5, 2013, pp.895-902. Download Full Text Article (PDF)