VOLUME 1, ISSUE 5, 2010



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Implications of building energy standard for sustainable energy efficient design in buildings

Joseph Iwaro, Abraham Mwasha

University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St.Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago.

Abstract: The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, has raised concerns over problems of energy supply, energy sustainability and exhaustion of energy resources. While most of the developed countries are implementing building energy standard rapidly to reduce building energy consumption and moving aggressively to achieve sustainable energy efficient building; the position of developing countries respect to energy standard implementation for this purpose is either poorly documented or not documented at all. Presently, there exists a gap between existing building designs and the increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building design in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries and its implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building. The present implementation status of building energy standard in 60 developing countries around the world, were analyzed using online survey. Hence, this study revealed the present implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries, implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building and how building energy standards can be used to fill the gap between existing building designs and increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.745-756.

Download Full Text Article (PDF)

2. Effect of periodic suction on three dimensional flow and heat transfer past a vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium

S. S. Das1, U. K. Tripathy2

1 Department of Physics, KBDAV College, Nirakarpur, Khurda-752 019 (Orissa), India.

2 Department of Physics, B S College, Daspalla, Nayagarh-752 078 (Orissa), India.

Abstract: This paper theoretically analyzes the effect of periodic suction on three dimensional flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. The governing equations for the velocity and temperature of the flow field are solved employing perturbation technique and the effects of the pertinent parameters such as suction parameter alpha, permeability parameter Kp, Reynolds number Re etc. on the velocity, temperature, skin friction and the rate of heat transfer are discussed with the help of figures and tables.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.757-768. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. Short term generation scheduling of cascaded hydro electric system using time varying acceleration coefficients PSO

Amita Mahor, Saroj Rangnekar

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

Abstract: The hydrological interdependence of plants in cascaded hydroelectric system means that operation of any plant has an effect on water levels and storage at other plants in the system. Hydro-logically efficient operation of power plants in such cascaded system requires that water resources should be managed efficiently, so that it can dispatched to predicted demand considering all physical and operational constraints. Meta-heuristic optimization techniques particularly Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and its variants have been successfully used to solve such problem. In this paper Time Varying Acceleration coefficients PSO (TVAC_PSO) has been used to determine the optimal generation schedule of real operated cascaded hydroelectric system located at Narmada river in state Madhya Pradesh, India. Results thus obtained from TVAC_PSO are compared with Novel Self Adaptive Inertia Weight PSO (NSAIW_PSO) and found to give better solution.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.769-782. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

4. An assessment of the availability of household biogas resources in rural China

Yu Chen1,2, Gaihe Yang2,3, Sandra Sweeney1, Yongzhong Feng2,3, Aidi Huod4

1 College of Forestry, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China.

2 Research Center for Recycling Agricultural Engineering Technology of Shaanxi Province, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China.

3 College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China.

4 College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Changan university, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710054, PR China.

Abstract: Three resources, climate, biomass and social economic, all of which are essential to the production of household biogas in rural China, are evaluated for six areas whose boundaries are based on the average ground temperature at a depth of 1.6 m. This paper brings forward the index system for evaluating the household biogas resource potential, calculates the weighing of each index with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The evaluation results indicate that Area IV has the optimum region to develop household biogas in rural China; both Areas III and V are suitable; Area I is less-than-suitable; both Areas II and VI are unsuitable. A key recommendation is that investment patterns be modeled on the local availability of these resources.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.783-792. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

5. Electronics waste management: Indian practices and guidelines

Amitava Bandyopadhyay

Department of Chemical Engineering. University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C.Road. Kolkata 700 009. India.

Abstract: Electronic waste or e-waste or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a popular, informal name for discarded electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) with all of their peripherals at their end-of-life. WEEE constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste streams. The fraction of precious and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise a meager 2.70%. Given the volume of WEEE generated containing toxic materials, it emerges as a risk to the society. Considering the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. In contrast, WEEE can offer a tremendous business opportunity if it would treat in proper manner. The management of the WEEE has thus become a global challenge in today’s world. Several nations across the globe have implemented or are about to implement WEEE regulations based on the principle of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). Both existing and proposed solutions are implemented with various degrees of centralization. Practical implementations however, can give rise to absurd organizational outcomes. In the light of these findings, the present paper deals with the Indian initiatives on the WEEE management keeping pace with the international scenario. Initially, this paper aims to draw an overview on the basics of WEEE. Next, the international legislative practices followed by Indian initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of this waste stream are discussed.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.793-804. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

6. Ghana's biofuels policy: challenges and the way forward

Edward Antwi1, Edem Cudjoe Bensah2, David Ato Quansah3, Richard Arthur4, Julius Ahiekpor2

1 Kumasi Polytechnic, Mechanical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi, Ghana.

2 Kumasi Polytechnic, Chemical Engineering Department, Box 854, Kumasi, Ghana.

3 The Energy Centre, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

4 Koforidua Polytechnic, PMB, Koforidua, Ghana.

Abstract: Liquid biofuels have come up strongly as possible substitute to conventional fossils fuels and woodfuels apparently because of its perceived environmental benefit, sustainability and recent hikes in petroleum fuel prices. These have led most countries to include biofuels in their energy mix to mitigate climate change effect caused by petroleum fuels and also to ensure energy security. Ghana as a developing country has also identified the potential of biofuels in her energy mix by setting some targets in its Strategic National Energy Policy (SNEP). This paper analyses the implications of the policy as presented in SNEP. It also looks at programmes put in place to achieve the set objectives and the possible challenges that are likely to be faced in their implementation. The paper concludes by calling for strong governmental involvement in achieving the set objectives.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.805-814. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

7. Experimental investigation of exergy destruction in a 8-kW power plant

M. Ghazikhani1, M. Ahmadzadehtalatapeh2

1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O.Box: 91775-1111, Mashhad, Iran.

2 Marine Engineering Department, Chabahar Maritime University, P.O.Box: 99717-56499, Chabahar, Iran.

Abstract: In this study, the exergy destruction and irreversibility analysis of an 8 kW experimental power plant was presented. The first objective of the present study was to find the component with primary irreversibility or exergy destruction in the system. In addition, the effect of different operation conditions such as boiler pressure and output power on the irreversibility of components was investigated. Based on the results, it was found that boiler and feed water tank has the maximum and minimum irreversibility in the system, respectively. Then, the boiler as the primary exergy destruction component in the system was focused. The boiler was divided into three regions namely: combustion, heat transfer, exhaust and the irreversibility in each region was evaluated .The results showed that the maximum part of irreversibility belongs to the heat transfer region with about 54.8% followed by 39% and 6% for combustion and exhaust regions, respectively.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.815-822. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

8. Physicochemical properties of polluted water of river Ganga at Varanasi

Singh Namrata

Department of Zoology, HarishChandra post Graduate College, Varanasi, India.

Abstract: Ganga river basin, which was comparatively free from anthropocentric activities until the 1940s, became a disposal site for agricultural, industrial and sewage wastes after independence of India in 1947. Discharge of waste generated due to developmental activities and demographic explosion in the basin degraded the water quality. Present paper deals with the impact of pollution on Ganga water at six different sites i.e. Assi Ghat, Shiwala Ghat, Chauki Ghat, Harishchandra Ghat, Rajendraprasad Ghat, and Raj Ghat. During investigation waste water was collected from six different sites to evaluate physicochemicalproperties of Such as Temperature, pH, Acidity, Alkalinity, DO, BOD, COD, Chloride, Electrical conductance, Nitrate, Phosphate of river Ganga. The investigation reveals that Raj Ghat was highly polluted and Shiwala Ghat was least polluted.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.823-832. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

9. Correlations for the estimation of monthly mean hourly diffuse solar radiation: a time dependent approach

A. K. Katiyar1, Akhilesh Kumar1, C. K. Pandey1, V. K. Katiyar2, S. H. Abdi3

1 Department of Applied Sciences, Institute of Engineering & Technology, Lucknow, India.

2 Department of Physics, BND College, Kanpur, India.

3 Department of Physics, BBDNITM Lucknow, India.

Abstract: The time dependent monthly mean hourly diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface has been estimated for Lucknow (latitude26.75 degree, longitude 80.50 degree) using least squares regression analysis. The monthly and annually regression constants are obtained. The present results are compared with the estimation of Orgill-Holands (Sol. Energy, 19 (4), 357 (1977)), Erbs et. al (Sol. Energy 28 (4), 293-304(1982)) and Spencer (Sol. Energy 29 (1), 19-32(1982)) as well as with experimental value. The proposed constant provides better estimation for the entire year over others. Spencer, who correlate hourly diffuse fraction with clearness index, estimates lowest value except in summers when insolation in this region is very high. The accuracy of the regression constants are also checked with statistical tests of root mean square error (RMSE), mean bias error (MBE) and t –statistic tests.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.833-840. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

10. Implementation of a DSP-based hybrid sensor for switched reluctance motor converter

Whei-Min Lin1, Chih-Ming Hong1, Huang -Chen Chien2, Huang-Chen Chien1

1 Department of Electrical Engineering National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, R.O.C.

2 Electronic Communication Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Abstract: The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) inherits a simple and reliable structure with an economical manufacturing cost. The DC power output supplies the unipolar converter to control the pulses sent to SRM. Thus, the velocity and torque are controllable for various velocity commands, and the SRM is gaining more and more applications on high torque requirement field with constant power. This paper proposes a DSP based hybrid sensor for switched reluctance motor with easy implementation. The current transducer is used to monitor the energized current and proximity sensors for rotor salient. The signals are then fed back to DSP. This design will improve the performance of SRM to operate more smoothly.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.841-860. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

11. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

N. Seshaiah

Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P, India.

Abstract: Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.861-870. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

12. Value-based operational strategy at the planning of CHP-based micro-grid

A. K. Basu1, S. Chowdhury2, S.P. Chowdhury2

1 Electrical Engineering Dept., Jadavpur University & 20/2, Khanpur Road, Kolkata 700047, India.

2 Electrical Engineering Department, University of Cape Town & Private Bag X3, Menzies Building, Room-517, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa.

Abstract: CHP-based micro-grid is stipulated to serve its customers with both electrical as well as thermal demand simultaneously, but from operational point of view, it is to opt either tracking of electrical demand profile or thermal. At the planning stage, owner of the micro-grid could evaluate which mode would be most economically beneficial to his system for investment. Maximization of net present value (NPV) of the 6-bus meshed and 14-bus radial micro-grid have been used in the present paper as an important decision making tool, along with internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period (PP) as supporting tools. As per the above tool, higher the benefits accrued from the system at lower investment, better is the choice of the mode of operation. As both higher benefits and lower investment are related with proper locations, capacity-sizes and types of DERs, Loss sensitivity index (LSI) method has been used, here, to take care of optimal locations, whereas optimal sizes and its separation into micro-turbines and diesel generators have been done using particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique with an object to maximization of NPV under certain power quality and reliability (PQR) constraints.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.871-882. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

13. Stochastic finite-time control for uncertain jump system with energy-storing electrical circuit simulation

Shuping He, Fei Liu

Institute of Automation, Jiangnan University, 214122 Wuxi, P. R. China.

Abstract: The stochastic finite-time H-infinity control problem is considered for a class of linear uncertain Markov jump systems that possess randomly jumping parameters. The transition of the jumping parameters is governed by a finite-state Markov process. A sufficient condition is provided to solve the above finite-time control problem and a stochastic finite-time H-infinity controller such that the resulting closed-loop system is stochastic finite-time boundedness  and stochastic finite-time stabilization and has the disturbance attenuation (gamma) for all admissible uncertainties. The control criterion is formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities and the designed finite-time stabilization controller is described as an optimization one. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the developed approaches.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.883-896. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

14. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

Mridul Sharma, Varun

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, 177005, India.

Abstract: The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs) on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. The exergy efficiency based criterion shows the better results at lower value of Re. There is not a single roughness geometry which gives best exergetic performance for whole range of Reynolds number. Solar air heater having rib-grooved and arc shaped wire as artificial roughness is found to have better exergy efficiency in the lower range of Reynolds number. However, smooth duct is found suitable in the higher range of Reynolds number.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.897-910. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

15. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

Nakorn Tippayawong, Nakarin Saengow, Ekarin Chaiya, Narawut Srisang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand.

Abstract: There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.911-918. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

16. Relationships among the physical properties of biodiesel and engine fuel system design requirement

G.Lakshmi Narayana Rao1, A.S. Ramadhas2, N. Nallusamy3, P.Sakthivel2

1 QIS Institute of Technology, Ongole, Andhra Pradesh, India.

2 Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad, India.

3 Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Pennalur, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract: Biodiesel, an alternative fuel can be used in diesel engines as neat or blended with diesel. The physio-chemical properties of fuel are important in design of fuel system for compression ignition engines run on diesel, biodiesel or biodiesel blends. Biodiesel (B100) standards specify the limit values of these properties for blending with diesel. However, there are variations in the properties of biodiesel. The properties of biodiesel vary depending on the feedstock, vegetable oil processing, production methods and degree of purification. The objective of this study is to estimate the mathematical relationships between viscosity, density, heating values and flash point among various biodiesel samples. There is a high regression between various properties of biodiesel and the relationships between them are observed to be considerably regular.

Volume 1, Issue 5, 2010, pp.919-926. Download Full Text Article (PDF)