VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, 2012



Aims and Scope
Editorial Board

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.i-viii. Download Full Text (PDF)

1. Water and energy sustainable management in irrigation systems network

Kaloyan N. Kenov,  Helena M. Ramos

Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal.

Abstract: Water scarcity, water quality deterioration and the increasing demand for water and for renewable energy in water systems, require sound planning and management practices supported by computer modeling. Such management practices must ensure the sustainable use of water resources, including the achievement of a good status of water bodies as prescribed by the EU Water Framework Directive. The purpose of this paper is to establish the applicability and limitations of two commercial software products to simulate the operation of a water system based on the Sorraia water project in Portugal. Particular attention was given to two products: (1) AQUATOOL, developed by the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (UPV); and, (2) WEAP developed by the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). The capabilities of the two models were analyzed focusing on the following aspects: (1) capability to reproduce the operation of a water system; (2) capacity to estimate the system’s reliability to meet water demands; (3) easiness of the modeling process, including entry data requirements and presentation of results; (4) usefulness to support decisions of water authorities. From the modeling activity process it is possible to conclude that: (1) AQUATOOL and WEAP are applicable in planning exercises, for which it is necessary to evaluate possible modifications in existing water systems and to analyze the effectiveness of resource exploitation policies, by taking into account objectives and infrastructure; and, (2) within certain modeling limitations, these software products can be used for water allocation predictions, multi-reservoir modeling, and reliability assessment of water systems.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.833-860.

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2. Optimization of post combustion carbon capture process-solvent selection

Udara S. P. R. Arachchige1, Muhammad Mohsin1, Morten C. Melaaen1,2

1 Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway.

2 Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn, Norway.

Abstract: The reduction of the main energy requirements in the CO2 capture process that is re-boiler duty in stripper section is important. Present study was focused on selection of better solvent concentration and CO2 lean loading for CO2 capture process. Both coal and gas fired power plant flue gases were considered to develop the capture plant with different efficiencies. Solvent concentration was varied from 25 to 40 (w/w %) and CO2 lean loading was varied from 0.15 to 0.30 (mol CO2/mol MEA) for 70-95 (mol %) CO2 removal efficiencies. The optimum specifications for coal and gas processes such as MEA concentration, CO2 lean loading, and solvent inlet flow rate were obtained.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.861-870. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

3. Polystyrene (PS) waste plastic conversion into aviation /kerosene category of fuel by using fractional column distillation process

Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid, Muhammad Sadikur Rahman, Mohammed Molla

Natural State Research, Inc. Department of Research and Development, 37 Brown House Road (2nd Floor), Stamford, CT 06902, USA.

Abstract: Environmental degradation and depleting fuel reserves are matters of great concern around the global. Solid waste plastic is currently receiving renewed interest for fuel generation. Waste plastic to fuel is suitable for compression ignition engines and more attention is focused in the world because of its potential to generate large-scale employment and relatively low environmental degradation. A post-commercial PS polymer waste was thermal degradation and fractional distillation without catalysts using a steel reactor operating thermally at ambient pressure under fume hood without vacuum system. Two types of temperature profile was used for this experiment such as PS waste plastic liquefaction purposed temperature used 100-400 ºC and fractional column distillation temperature was used 180-305 ºC for collection kerosene or aviation grade fuel. Produced fuel was analyzed by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometer and fuel hydrocarbon range showed into GC/MS analysis is C6 to C16.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.871-880. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

4. Performance evaluation of roughened solar air heater having M-shaped as roughness geometry on the absorber plate

Manish Kumar Chauhan1, Varun2, Sachin Chaudhary2

1 Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, IIT Roorkee, (U.K.) – 247667, India.

2 Mechanical Engineering Department, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.) – 177005, India.

Abstract: As thermal efficiency of conventional solar air heater is low, best way is to enhance its thermal efficiency is make the flow turbulent. This can be achieved by using the artificial roughness on underside of absorber plate. An attempt has been made to enhance its thermal as well as thermohydraulic performance by providing roughness elements. An experimental investigation has been carried out on M-shaped ribs having circular cross section on absorber plate. The duct is having an aspect ratio of (W/H) 11.41, relative roughness height (e/D) 0.033-0.077, relative roughness pitch (P/e) 12.5-75 and angle of attack (α) 30-60°. The range for Reynolds number has been considered to be 3000-22000. The best result of thermal and thermohydraulic performance has been observed at (e/D) 0.077, (P/e) 25 and (α) 60°.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.881-894. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

5. Performance analysis of wind turbine systems under different parameters effect

Salih Mohammed Salih, Mohammed Qasim Taha, Mohammed K. Alawsaj

College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Iraq.

Abstract: In this paper, simulation models are used to study the performance of small power systems based on different weather parameters. The results are extracted using Matlab software program for analyzing the performance of two wind turbines: Whisper-500 3.2KW and NY-WSR1204 600W which have the same type of permanent magnetic alternators (three phase and 16 poles). Different parameters can affect on the performance of wind turbines which are: the wind speed air density, air pressure, temperature and the length of blades for wind generators. The mathematical results related the previous mentioned parameters are analyzed in order to determine the sensitivity of input power on the output of wind generators.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.895-904. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

6. Economic viability of a residential building integrated photovoltaic generator in South Africa

Sosten Ziuku, Edson L. Meyer

Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Abstract: A photovoltaic (PV) generator was integrated onto the north facing roof of an energy efficient house in South Africa. The building integrated photovoltaic generator (BIPV) supplies power to the household loads and the grid and is also the roof façade. This paper presents an economic evaluation of the viability of the BIPV system using methods of investment analysis. The capital cost and life cycle cost of energy were found to be ZAR 52 631-58/kWp and ZAR 1-94/kWh respectively. The payback period was 8 years and adjusted internal rate of return 9.3%. Parametric sensitivity analysis revealed that a 50% decrease in module price results in a 29% reduction in life cycle cost of energy and more than 50% reduction in payback period.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.905-914. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

7. An experimental investigation of performance and exhaust emission of a diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha biodiesel and its blends

Nitin Shrivastava1, S.N. Varma1, Mukesh Pandey2

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University Institute of Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, India.

2 School of Energy and Environment, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal, India.

Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine the Performance parameters and exhaust emission of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel, a Jatropha Biodiesel namely Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME), its 20 percent (B20) and 50 percent (B50) blends as an alternative diesel engine fuel. JOME was prepared using Jatropha oil, methyl alcohol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Tests have been carried out in four cylinder direct injection diesel engine with different loading conditions. Performance parameters investigated are Brake thermal efficiency, Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and Brake specific Energy consumption (BSEC), the emission parameters investigated are CO, HC, NOx, and smoke. Results showed that JOME pure or its blend both showed considerable reduction in emission except NOx. A fuel blend of 20 percent JOME showed approximately same BTE as that of neat Diesel fuel. The result showed that the Biodiesel derived from Jatropha oil Showed comparable performance and can be a good replacement to petroleum diesel.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.915-926. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

8. Optimal placement of horizontal - and vertical - axis wind turbines in a wind farm for maximum power generation using a genetic algorithm

Xiaomin Chen, Ramesh Agarwal

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130, USA.

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the Wind Farm layout optimization problem using a genetic algorithm. Both the Horizontal –Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are considered. The goal of the optimization problem is to optimally position the turbines within the wind farm such that the wake effects are minimized and the power production is maximized. The reasonably accurate modeling of the turbine wake is critical in determination of the optimal layout of the turbines and the power generated. For HAWT, two wake models are considered; both are found to give similar answers. For VAWT, a very simple wake model is employed.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.927-938. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

9. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of pongamia oil

A. Haiter Lenin1, K. Thyagarajan2

1 PET Engineering College, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vallioor - 627 117, India.

2 Noorul Islam College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thuckalay, India.

Abstract: In this study pongamia methyl ester was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst and was used as fuel in a four stroke, water cooled, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. Pongamia methyl ester fuel blends (75% and 100%) were used for conducting the engine performance tests at varying loads (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). Tests were carried out over entire range of engine operation at varying conditions of load. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics were determined. Based on these, the parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, emissions in exhaust such as CO, CO2, O2, HC and NOx were recorded. The results show that the blend of pongamia oil with diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.939-948. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

10. Comparative study on sulphur reduction from heavy petroleum - Solvent extraction and microwave irradiation approach

Abdullahi Dyadya Mohammed1, Abubakar Garba Isah1, Musa Umaru1, Shehu Ahmed1, Yababa Nma Abdullahi2

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Nigeria.

2 National Petroleum Investment Management Services (Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation), Lagos, Nigeria.

Abstract: Sulphur- containing compounds in heavy crude oils are undesirable in refining process as they affect the quality of the final product, cause catalyst poisoning and deactivation in catalytic converters as well as causing corrosion problems in oil pipelines, pumps and refining equipment aside environmental pollution from their combustion and high processing cost. Sulphur reduction has being studied using microwave irradiation set at 300W for 10 and 15minutes and oxidative- solvent extraction method using n- heptane and methanol by 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 crude- solvent ratios after being oxidized with hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 oxidants. Percentage sulphur removal with n- heptane solvent by 1:1 and 1:2 are 81.73 and 85.47%; but extraction using methanol by different observed ratios gave less sulphur reduction. Indeed when microwave irradiated at 300W for 10 and 15minutes, 53.68 and 78.45% reduction were achieved. This indicates that microwave irradiation had caused oxidation by air in the oven cavity and results to formation of alkyl radicals and sulphoxide from sulphur compound in the petroleum. The prevailing sulphur found in the crude going by FT-IR results is sulphides which oxidized to sulphoxide or sulphones. It is clear that sulphur extraction with heptane is more efficient than microwave irradiation but economically due to demands for solvent and its industrial usage microwave irradiation can serve as alternative substitute for sulphur reduction in petroleum. Sulphur reduction by microwave radiation should be up- scaled from laboratory to a pilot plant without involving extraction column in the refining.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.949-960. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

11. Application of ANN technique for rainfall forecasting over Iraq

Bashair Abdul Rahman Mohammed

Department of Physics, College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.

Abstract: Rainfall prediction for 5 climatic stations covering Iraq using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique has presented. Data records extend for the period 1937 to 2010 was used to forecast the next ten years for each station. Two prediction approaches were used with the ANN, Bipolar Sigmoid (BS) and Hyperbolic Tangent (HT) to simulate the predication with Mean Square Error (MSE) of 0.1. It reveals the possible success for 4 years is more successful than 10 years forecasting .This conclusion is compatible with continuity of the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) lag graph for the time series. HT found to give better estimation than BS activation function.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.961-966. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

12. Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of rectangular channel solar air heater duct having protrusions as roughness element

Maneesh Kaushal, Varun

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Hamirpur (HP)-177005, India.

Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to see the effect of roughness element on heat transfer and friction factor on the absorber plate of the solar air heater. The roughness provided is in the form of protrusions which are arranged in an arc pattern. This paper presents an investigation to study the effect of protruded geometry on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The pair of protrusion geometry arc angle (α) of 45o is mounted on the test section of duct to create a longitudinal flow through test section. Measurements are carried out for rectangular duct which has aspect ratio (W/H) of 11, relative roughness pitch (P/e) in the range of 12-24, relative roughness height (e/D) of 0.03, ratio of height of protrusion to print diameter (d) of 0.3° and Reynolds number (Re) ranges from 3600-18100.The results obtained for various relative roughness pitch (P/e) has also been compared with smooth one. And on comparison to smooth duct, the roughened duct enhances the heat transfer and friction factor by 2.96 and 2.73 times.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.967-976. Download Full Text Article (PDF)

13. The latest continuous monitoring instrumentation for ground-gas monitoring and risk prediction

A. N. Nwachukwu1, A. W. Diya2

1 Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

2 Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Abstract: In the field of ground-gas monitoring and risk assessment, the concentrations and flows of ground-gas from contaminated sites are usually measured in-situ using handheld or transportable field instruments followed with ex-situ analysis. These portable instruments only give spot data of the gases being monitored and few of their controls. However, and more recently, it has been discovered that ground-gas concentrations and flows are temporarily and spatially variable, with the accompanying realization that the existing instruments are not able to resolve these problems. For example, contaminated sites investigation shows that environment conditions such as pressure, temperature, water level, and air movement substantially affect ground-gas concentrations on the range of timescales, therefore; uncertainty will always exist when using methods that lack temporal resolution. This paper describes the most recent instrumentation that provides real time continuous gas data both inside borehole and ambient air for parameters such as methane, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfides, oxygen and carbon monoxide alongside atmospheric and borehole pressures. Raw data is presented from field work carried out in 2 landfill sites and 2 peat sites in Manchester, United Kingdom. These datasets are currently being used to derive a methodology for improved prediction of risks due to ground-gases.

Volume 3, Issue 6, 2012, pp.977-1014. Download Full Text Article (PDF)